Endosymbionts that threaten commercially raised and wild bumble bees (Bombus spp.)
Keywords:parasites, pathogens, Bombus, bumble bee, symbionts
Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important pollinators for both wild and agriculturally managed plants. We give an overview of what is known about the diverse community of internal potentially deleterious bumble bee symbionts, including viruses, bacteria, protozoans, fungi, and nematodes, as well as methods for their detection, quantification, and control. We also provide information on assessment of risk for select bumble bee symbionts and highlight key knowledge gaps. This information is crucial for ongoing efforts to establish parasite-free programs for future commerce in bumble bees for crop pollination, and to mitigate the problems with pathogen spillover to wild populations.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Laura L. Figueroa, Ben M. Sadd, Amber D. Tripodi, James P. Strange, Sheila R. Colla, Laurie Davies Adams, Michelle A. Duennes, Elaine C. Evans, David M. Lehmann, Heather Moylett, Leif Richardson, James W. Smith, Tamara A. Smith, Edward M. Spevak, David W. Inouye
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