An evidence-based rationale for a North American commercial bumble bee clean stock certification program


  • James P. Strange Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43214
  • Sheila R. Colla Faculty of Environmental and Urban Change, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada
  • Laurie Davies Adams Pollinator Partnership
  • Michelle A. Duennes Department of Biology, Saint Vincent College, Latrobe, PA 15650
  • Elaine C. Evans Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108 USA
  • Laura L. Figueroa Department of Environmental Conservation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Amherst, MA, 01003
  • David M. Lehmann 7Center for Public Health and Environmental Assessment (CPHEA), Health and Environmental Effects Assessment Division, Integrated Health Assessment Branch, US - Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711, USA
  • Heather Moylett Unaffiliated
  • Leif Richardson The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
  • Ben M. Sadd School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University
  • James W. Smith Retired USDA APHIS
  • Tamara A. Smith Unaffiliated
  • Amber D. Tripodi Unaffiliated
  • David W. Inouye University of Maryland Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory



Bombus, bumble bee, management, disease, parasite, pathogen, clean stock


The commercial production and subsequent movement of bumble bees for pollination of agricultural field and greenhouse crops is a growing industry in North America and globally. Concerns have been raised about the impacts of pathogen spillover from managed bees to wild pollinators, including from commercial bumble bees. We recommend development of a program to mitigate disease risk in commercial bumble bee production, which will in turn reduce disease stressors on wild pollinators and other insects. We provide recommendations for the components of a clean stock program with specific best management practices for rearing commercial bumble bees including related products such as wax, pollen, and nesting material.

Author Biography

Laurie Davies Adams, Pollinator Partnership





How to Cite

Strange, J. ., Colla, S., Davies Adams, L., Duennes, M., Evans, E., Figueroa, L., … Inouye, D. W. (2023). An evidence-based rationale for a North American commercial bumble bee clean stock certification program . Journal of Pollination Ecology, 33, 1–13.



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